After the Germans defeat at Lugalo in 1891, it took them three years to reorganise. They prepared a stronger force than the one which was routed at Lugalo. Chief Mkwawa also went on to reorganise his army after the Lugalo battle. In two years time, the army was as strong as before, and he was frequently sending a small detachment to harass the Germans at Kilosa, and another one to attack the outpost at Kilimatinde.
In 1894 the Germans led by Commander Tom Von Prince marched to storm Kalenga. This time they chose a tortuous road to Kalenga, which even Chief Mkwawa would not have believed had they known it. They approached from Kisaki and Ulanga valley and then climbed the Usungwa escarpment. They descended from Usungwa mountains to the plains where Kalenga fort lies, and the only 400M from it on top of Lugulu hill which overlooks Kalenga, they built a thorn stockade within which they erected their tents.
This was the second invasion of Germans against the Hehe and fighting began from Lugulu hill on the 28th October 1894.