After Sergeant Merckel cut off Chief Mkwawa's head, Commander Von Prince sent the skull to Berlin. The skull was then sent and kept at Bremen Anthropological Museum in Bremen.
After Germany lost all her colonies, the Versailles Treaty of June 28, 1919 : Part VIII Article 246 stippulated that the Hehe Chief's skull should be returned to his people.
In 1949, the then Governor of Tanganyika, Sir Edward Twining asked for its official return to Tanganyika. In 1953, he went to Bremen with the shape of the skull, cranial measurements and the place where the shot made the hole. He finally found what he was looking for.
On the 9th of July 1954, fifty six years to the day of Chief Mkwawa's death, Sir Edward Twining handed over his skull to Chief Adam Sapi Mkwawa in a very colourful and great occasion at Kalenga.